All Issue

2018 Vol.51, Issue 3 Preview Page
August 2018. pp. 306-315
Abstract

Nitrogen (N) balance is a key indicator assessing a degree of soil fertility and N loading by accounting input minus output N in agro-ecosystem. However, a recent approach on determining N balance has been evaluated regarding a change in soil N stock for continuing crop cultivation. To describe an assessment method on N balance, this study was conducted with three different methods, Method A (Input N−Output N (crop N removal+Loss N) = N surplus or deficit), Method B (Input N − Output N (crop N removal+Loss N + Δ soil total N) = N surplus or deficit), and Method C (Input N − Output N (crop N removal+Loss N) + Δ soil total N = N surplus or deficit). Four levels (0, 60, 120, and 180 kg N ha-1) of N from urea and two levels (120 and 180 kg ha-1) of N from combination of urea and CM (Urea:Cattle Manure = 60:60 and 60:120) were applied in a lowland paddy soil. Results showed that Method B indicated all negative N values regardless the sources and rates of N application, while Method A and C described different N balance values in the given N applications. Using Method A, a response of N balance to urea applications (0, 60, 120, and 180 kg N ha-1) was linearly increased. The values of N balance were negative at 0 and 60 kg N ha-1, while it was close to zero at 120 kg N ha-1 and showed the higher value at 180 kg N ha-1, respectively. Similarly, the combined N applications at 120 and 180 kg N ha-1 showed similar N balance values. Meanwhile, Method C indicated different N balance values at the combined N applications, showing significantly higher N balance values at 120 kg N ha-1 and the more value at 180 kg N ha-1, as compared with Method A. The difference was attributed to the soil N stock considering as count factor in determination of N balance. Thus, the study recommended Method C when evaluating both of soil fertility and N loading in crop cultivation field.

A response of N balance to urea applications (0, 60, 120, and 180 kg N ha-1) was linearly increased using Method A and C. However, the difference values of N balance between the method A and C in the combined N applications (Urea+CM 120 and 180 kg N ha-1) were attributed to the change of soil N as considering independent factor for method C.

References
  1. 농촌진흥청. 1999. 작물별 시비처방기준. p152.
  2. 윤영만, 김창현, 구현회, 오승용, 홍종미, 윤성휘, 김창규, 이만희. 2016. 양분총량제 도입을 위한 기반조성 연구. 환경부 및 농림축산식품부 연구용역보고서. p 228.
  3. Bremner, J., D. Sparks, A. Page, P. Helmke, R. Loeppert, P. Soltanpour, et al. 1996. Nitrogen-total. Methods of soil analysis. Part 3-chemical methods.: 1085-1121.
  4. Conacher, J. and A. Conacher. 1998. Organic farming and the environment, with particular reference to Australia: a review. Biological Agriculture & Horticulture 16:145-171.10.1080/01448765.1998.9755229
  5. Eurostat (2013). Nutrient Budgets – Methodology and Handbook. Version 1.02. Eurostat and OECD, Luxembourg.
  6. Havlin, J.L., S.L. Tisdale, W.L. Nelson and J.D. Beaton. 2007. Soil fertility and fertilizersPearson education.
  7. Høyås, T.R., N. Vagstad, M. Bechmann and H.O. Eggestad. 1997. Nitrogen budget in the river Auli catchment: A catchment dominated by agriculture in southeastern Norway. Ambio (Sweden).
  8. Kang, C.-S. and A.-S. Roh. 2012. Fertilization efficiency of livestock manure composts as compared to chemical fertilizers for paddy rice cultivation. Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer 45:86-92.10.7745/KJSSF.2012.45.1.086
  9. Ku, H.-H., K. Hayashi, R. Agbisit and G. Villegas-Pangga. 2016. Effect of rates and sources of nitrogen on rice yield, nitrogen efficiency, and methane emission from irrigated rice cultivation. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science: 1-14.
  10. Ku, H.-H., K. Hayashi, R. Agbisit and G. Villegas-Pangga. 2017. Effect of rates and sources of nitrogen on rice yield, nitrogen efficiency, and methane emission from irrigated rice cultivation. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 63:1009-1022.10.1080/03650340.2016.1255327
  11. Ladha, J., A. Tirol-Padre, C. Reddy, K. Cassman, S. Verma, D. Powlson, et al. 2016. Global nitrogen budgets in cereals: A 50-year assessment for maize, rice, and wheat production systems. Scientific reports 6:19355.10.1038/srep1935526778035PMC4726071
  12. Leip, A., W. Britz, F. Weiss and W. de Vries. 2011. Farm, land, and soil nitrogen budgets for agriculture in Europe calculated with CAPRI. Environmental pollution 159:3243-3253.10.1016/j.envpol.2011.01.04021420769
  13. Marschner, H. 2011. Marschner's mineral nutrition of higher plantsAcademic press.
  14. Meisinger, J.J., F. Calderon and D. Jenkinson. 2008. Soil nitrogen budgets. Nitrogen in agricultural systems: 505-562.
  15. OECD. 2001. Environmental Indicators for Agriculture — Volume 3: Methods and Results, Publications Service, Paris, France.
  16. Oomen, G., E. Lantinga, E. Goewie and K. Van der Hoek. 1998. Mixed farming systems as a way towards a more efficient use of nitrogen in European Union agriculture. Environmental Pollution 102:697-704.10.1016/S0269-7491(98)80101-2
  17. Sainju, U.M. 2017. Determination of nitrogen balance in agroecosystems. MethodsX 4:199-208.10.1016/j.mex.2017.06.00128725573PMC5503880
  18. Xu, M.-g., D.-C. Li, J.-M. Li, D.-Z. Qin, Y. Kazuyuki and Y. Hosen. 2008. Effects of organic manure application with chemical fertilizers on nutrient absorption and yield of rice in Hunan of Southern China. Agricultural Sciences in China 7:1245-1252.10.1016/S1671-2927(08)60171-6
  19. Yeon, B.-Y., H.-K. Kwak, Y.-S. Song, H.-J. Jun, H.-J. Cho and C.-H. Kim. 2007. Changes in rice yield and soil organic matter content under continued application of rice straw compost for 50 years in paddy soil. Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer.
Information
  • Publisher :Korean Society of Soil Science and Fertilizer
  • Publisher(Ko) :한국토양비료학회
  • Journal Title :Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
  • Journal Title(Ko) :한국토양비료학회 학회지
  • Volume : 51
  • No :3
  • Pages :306-315
  • Received Date :2018. 08. 14
  • Accepted Date : 2018. 08. 31