All Issue

2018 Vol.51, Issue 4 Preview Page
November 2018. pp. 499-509

The subsoil compaction by heavy agro-machine is an ongoing cumulative process and threat in sustainable agriculture, especially exchange land use. The knowledge concerning the effects of agro-machine on soil physical properties in upland is necessary in arable soil management. The purpose of this study is to assess soil physical properties by heavy agro-machine operating period in upland. The choice of target soils was based on soil series, which preferentially have larger area in Korean upland field, including ranking 1st to 29th. Investigated sites of chosen soil series were designated at mainly distributed area of them. The soil physical properties include plow pan depth, bulk density, soil hardness and saturated hydraulic conductivity. From the investigation, soils with heavy agro-machine longer than 10 years, showed higher plow pan thickness, bulk density and hardness, and shallower surface soil depth than soils with heavy agro-machine shorter than 9 yrs. The value of plow pan thickness, bulk density, hardness, and surface soil depth is 19.8 cm, 1.54 Mg m-3, 21.8 mm and 16.9 cm in front one and 15.2 cm, 1.48 Mg m-3, 19.3 mm and 18.1 cm in back one. Especially fine silty and heavy clayey upland soils had an increase of plow pan thickness and decrease of saturated hydraulic conductivity by longer use of heavy agro-machine when classified by different soil textural families and upland soil types. Therefore, periodic improvement of physical properties is needed for upland soil management in the long-term point of view.

The change in physical properties of upland soils as increase of heavy agro-machine use period.

Items Depth Years with heavy agro-machine Ratio (B/A) <9 (A) >10 (B) Average years 8 13 1.58 Surface soil depth (cm) 18.1 ± 2.1 a 16.9 ± 1.7 b 0.93 Plowing depth (cm) 13.5 ± 1.5 ns 13.0 ± 1.2 ns 0.96 Plow pan thickness (cm) 15.2 ± 4.2 b 19.8 ± 4.5 a 1.30 Bulk density (Mg m-3) top 1.24 ± 0.12 b 1.34 ± 0.12 a 1.08 sub 1.48 ± 0.09 b 1.54 ± 0.08 a 1.04 Porosity (%) top 53.4 ± 4.2 a 49.3 ± 4.7 b 0.93 sub 44.2 ± 3.5 a 42.0 ± 3.1 b 0.95 Hardness (mm) top 10.3 ± 2.6 b 12.7 ± 2.5 a 1.23 sub 19.3 ± 3.1 b 21.8 ± 3.0 a 1.13

Data are means±standard deviation.

Different letters in the same row indicate significant difference according to t-test (p<0.05).

  1. Akker, J.J.H. and A. Canarache. 2001. Two European concerted actions on subsoil compaction. Landnutzung and Landentwicklung. 42(1):15-22.
  2. Alakukku, L. 2000. Responses of annual crops to subsoil compaction in a field experiment in clay soil lasting 17 years. p. 205-208. In: R. Horn et al. (ed.) Subsoil Compaction : Distribution, Processes and Consequences. Advances in GeoEcology 32. Catena Verlag, Reiskirchen, Germany.
  3. Cho, H.R., K.H. Han, Y.S. Zhang, K.H. Jung, Y.K. Sonn, M.S. Kim, and S.Y. Choi. 2016. Threshold subsoil bulk density for optimal soil physical quality in upland: inferred through parameter Interactions and Crop Growth Inhibition. Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer. 49(5):548-554.10.7745/KJSSF.2016.49.5.548
  4. Cook, A., C.A. Marriott, W. Seel, and C.E. Mullins. 1996. Effects of soil mechanical impedance on root and shoot growth of Lolium perenne L, Agrostis capillaris and Trifolium repens L. J. Exp. Bot. 47:1075-1084.10.1093/jxb/47.8.1075
  5. Czyz, E.A. 2004. Effects of traffic on soil aeration, bulk density and growth of spring barley. Soil Tillage Res. 79:153-166.10.1016/j.still.2004.07.004
  6. Hartge, K.H., R. Horton, R. Horn, J. Bachmann, and S. Peth. 2016. Essential soil physics : An introduction to soil processes, functions, structure and mechanics. Schweizerbart Science Publishers, Germany.
  7. Horn, R. and H. Fleige. 2009. Risk assessment of subsoil compaction for arable soils in Northwest Germany at farm scale. Soil & Tillage Research. 102:201-208.10.1016/j.still.2008.07.015
  8. Imhoff, S., A.P. da Silva, and D. Fallow. 2004. Susceptibility to compaction, load support capacity and soil compressibility of Hapludox. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 68:17-24.10.2136/sssaj2004.1700
  9. Japan soil association. 1986. Agri-environment information system for food production : crop production environment indicator, 1st soil environment. (in Korean, '농업환경생산정보시스템 농작물 생육환경 총지표 제1집 토양환경'). Japan soil association, Japan.
  10. Jo, I.S., L.Y. Kim, D.U. Choi, J.N. Im, and K.T. Um. 1983. The effects of soil physical properties on root distribution of barley. Korean J. Soil Sci. Fert. 16(2):126-130.
  11. Jo, I.S., S.J. Cho, and J.N. Im. 1977. A study on penetration of pea seedling taproots as influenced by strength of soil. Korean J. Soil Sci. Fert. 10(1):7-12.
  12. Jung, K.H., Y.K. Sonn, S.H. Hur, K.W. Han, H.R. Cho, M.J. Seo, M.H. Jung, and S.Y. Choi. 2016. Hydraulic characteristics of arable fields in Korea and applicability of pedotransper function. Korean J. Soil Sci. Fert. 49(6):655-661.10.7745/KJSSF.2016.49.6.655
  13. Kay, B.D. 1990. Rates of change of soil structure under different cropping systems. Advances in Soil Science 12. Springer, New York, NY, USA.
  14. Keller, T. and I. Hakansson. 2010. Estimation of reference bulk density from soil particle size distribution and soil organic matter content. Geodema. 154:398-406.10.1016/j.geoderma.2009.11.013
  15. Kim, L.Y. and I.S. Jo. 1998. Soil physics. Korean J. Soil Sci. Fert. 31(S.I):7-18.
  16. Kim, L.Y., H.J. Cho, B.K. Hyun, and W.P. Park. 2001. Effects of physical improvement practices at plastic film house soil. Korean J. Soil Sci. Fert. 34(2):92-97.
  17. Larson, W.E., S.C. Gupta, and R.A. Useche. 1980. Compression of agricultural soils from eight soil orders. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 44:450-457.10.2136/sssaj1980.03615995004400030002x
  18. Larson, W.E., S.C. Gupta, and R.A. Useche. 1980. Compression of agricultural soils from eight soil orders. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 44:450-457.10.2136/sssaj1980.03615995004400030002x
  19. Lebert, M. and R. Horn. 1991. A method to predict the mechanical strength of agricultural soils. Soil Tillage Res. 19:275-286.10.1016/0167-1987(91)90095-F
  20. Letey, J. 1985. Relationship between soil physical properties and crop production. Adv. Soil Sci. 1:277-294.10.1007/978-1-4612-5046-3_8
  21. McLaren, R. G. and K. C. Cameron. 1996. Soil Science. 2nd edition. Oxford University Press, Canada.
  22. NAS (National Institute of Agricultural Science). 2017. Soil physical methods. NAS, RDA, Korea.
  23. NIAST (National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology). 1992. Introduction to Korean soil. Soil survey document No. 13. NIAST, RDA, Korea.
  24. NIAST (National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology). 2000.Taxonomical classification of Korean soils. NIAST, RDA, Korea.
  25. Raper, R.L. 2005. Agricultural traffic impacts on soil. J. Terramechanics. 42:259-280.10.1016/j.jterra.2004.10.010
  26. Saqib, M., J. Akhtar, and R.H. Qureshi. 2004. Pot study on wheat growth in saline and waterlogged compacted soil I. Grain yield and yield components. Soil Tillage Res. 77:169-177.10.1016/j.still.2003.12.004
  27. Schäffer, B., M. Stauber, R. Muller, and R. Schulin. 2007. Changes in the macro-pore structure of restored soil caused by compaction beneath heavy agricultural machinery: a morphometric study. Eur. J. Soil Sci. 58(5):1062-1073.10.1111/j.1365-2389.2007.00886.x
  28. Seo, M.J., K.H. Han, K.H. Jung, H.R. Cho, Y.S. Zhang, and S.Y. Choi. 2016. Effect of temperature and plow pan on water movement in monolithic weighable lysimeter with paddy sandy loam soil during winter season. Korean J. Soil Sci. Fert. 49(4):300-309.10.7745/KJSSF.2016.49.4.300
  29. Shierlaw, J. and A.M. Alston. 1984. Effect of soil compaction on root growth and uptake of phosphorus. Plant and Soil. 77:15-28.10.1007/BF02182808
  30. Smith, C.W., M.A. Johnston, and S. Lorentz. 1997. Assessing the compaction susceptibility of South African forestry soils. II. Soil properties affecting compactibility and compressibility. Soil Tillage Res. 43:335-354.10.1016/S0167-1987(97)00023-8
  31. Unger, P.W. and T.C. Kaspar. 1994. Soil compaction and root-growth : a review. Agron. J. 86:759-766.10.2134/agronj1994.00021962008600050004x
  32. Voorhees, W.B. 2000. Long term effects of subsoil compaction on yield of maize. p. 331-338. In: R. Horn et al. (ed.) Subsoil Compaction : Distribution, Processes and Consequences. Advances in GeoEcology 32. Catena Verlag, Reiskirchen, Germany.
  • Publisher :Korean Society of Soil Science and Fertilizer
  • Publisher(Ko) :한국토양비료학회
  • Journal Title :Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
  • Journal Title(Ko) :한국토양비료학회 학회지
  • Volume : 51
  • No :4
  • Pages :499-509
  • Received Date :2018. 09. 28
  • Accepted Date : 2018. 11. 12