• Article

    Evaluation of the Crop Yield and Nutrient Balance by Application of Liquid Manure in Paddy Soil
    Young Eun Yoon, Hyeon Ji Choe, Vimalraj Kantharaj, Mi Sun Jeong, and Yong Bok Lee
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of liquid manure to increase the yield of green manure in winter ... + READ MORE
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of liquid manure to increase the yield of green manure in winter season, and to investigate the effect of green manure incorporation to increase the yield of maize grain and nutrient balance improvement in upland soil. The green manure used in this experiment was barley and hairy vetch with a mixed ratio of barley and hairy vetch (75:25), respectively. Liquid manure applied 0, 26, 52, 78, and 104 Mg ha-1, respectively, and the half of the total amount was applied as basal fertilizer, and the other half was topdressing. Nitrogen inputs through liquid manure were 0, 7.1, 15.6, 21.5 and 28.4 kg ha-1, respectively, and the phosphorus inputs were 0, 11.3, 22.6, 33.9 and 45.2 kg ha-1, respectively. The yield of green manure crops increased significantly with the increase of liquid manure application, but the yield of hairy vetch decreased. In the summer season, the green manure crops were incorporated, and the compost was used in the conventional treatment. The yield of maize grain increased with increasing green manure yield. The yield of maize grain of green manure crops incorporation treatments was up to 81% compared to conventional cultivation treatment, however the two-year experiments showed an increase on maize grain yields in green manure incorporation treatment. In addition, the incorporation of green manure crops greatly improved the phosphorus balance in compared to conventional cultivation. Therefore, productivity improvement of green manure crops by utilizing liquid manure is thought to have significantly contributed to the improvement of maize grain yield and nutrient balance. The effect of green manure incorporation on the maize grain yield with different rate of liquid manure application for two years. The maize grain yield of PM4 treatment was 759 kg 10a-1, and up to 81% in compared with the NPK treatment in 2017. However, the maize yield of incorporation green manure treatment in 2017 tended to increase in compared with that of in 2016. - COLLAPSE
    May 2020
  • Article

    Effects of Different Organic Fertilizers and Fertilization Method on Red Pepper Growth and soil Chemical Properties
    Seong Heon Kim, Seong Jin Park, Jae Hong Shim, Hye Bin Seo, Jae Eun Lim, Yun Hae Lee, Hyun Young Hwang, and Myung Sook Kim
    In this study, we investigated the effect of different organic fertilizers and fertilization system on red pepper (Capsicum Annuum L.) growth and ... + READ MORE
    In this study, we investigated the effect of different organic fertilizers and fertilization system on red pepper (Capsicum Annuum L.) growth and soil chemical properties. This experiment was carried out; 1) to compared growth and soil chemical properties by different organic fertilizers (MEC: mixed expeller cake, MOF: mixed organic fertilizer, OCF: organic complex fertilizer), and 2) to evaluate the effect of fertilization methods (NPK treatment, Organic fertilizer treatment). Organic fertilizers were applied with two different methods: single application (SA) and split application (SP). The highest yield and nitrogen use efficiency were observed in MOF with SP method. After harvest, soil pH was decreased but, Electrical conductivity was increased in all organic fertilization treatments due to increasing of nitrogen compound such as NO3-N and NH4-N. This result indicated that MOF with SP was effective agricultural practice compared to NPK treatment. However, further study should be required to evaluate long-term effect of organic fertilizer application on soil properties and crop yield. Yield and nitrogen use efficiency of red pepper under different fertilizer types and fertilization method. - COLLAPSE
    May 2020
  • Article

    The Effects of Barley-Hairy Vetch Mixtures on Green Manure Productivity and Soil Phosphorus Solubilization
    Cho-Rong Lee, Kwang-Lai Park, Jeong-Lai Cho, Yura Oh, Sang-Min Lee, and Nan-Hee An
    Soil phosphate accumulation has been problems in some organic farmlands in Korea. This study was conducted to solubilize the accumulated phosphate in ... + READ MORE
    Soil phosphate accumulation has been problems in some organic farmlands in Korea. This study was conducted to solubilize the accumulated phosphate in organic upland soils using green manure mixtures as substitute for chemical materials (EDTA etc.). We investigated the effects of barley-hairy vetch mixtures on the productivity of biomass and nutrient and the solubilization of soil phosphate. Treatments were barley single (B), hairy vetch single (H), mixtures of B and H at the ratio of 2:1 (B2H1), 1:1 (B1H1), 1:2 (B1H2), and control (CON). Green manures were cultivated on phosphate accumulated soils (> 1,000 mg Lancaster P2O5 kg-1) for 3 years. Mixtures were more effective for stable production of yields and nutrient than B or H, because dry matter yields of green manures were more variable in B and H single. The quality of B as green manure improved in mixtures, because the C/N ratio of B in mixture increased less than B single. In addition, H was effective for phosphate solubilization, as water soluble phosphate contents of H single (2017 and 2019) and mixtures (2019) were significantly higher than B single (2017 and 2019) and CON (2019) despite of phosphate uptake by green manures. Therefore, barley-hairy vetch mixtures could be useful considering green manure productivity and phosphate solubilization in phosphate accumulated upland soils. Mean (n = 3) soil water soluble phosphate affected by green manure treatment (kg ha-1); no green manure (CON), barley single (B), barley and hairy vetch 2:1 mixture (B2H1), 1:1 (B1H1), 1:2 (B1H2), and hairy vetch single (H). - COLLAPSE
    May 2020
  • Article

    Effect of Bacillus CC112 Inoculation on Fungal Pathogens and Soil Microbial Community in a Ginseng-Cultivated Soil
    Sang Yoon Kim, Ju-Hee An, Kyung Hoon Park, Sang Yeob Lee, Hang-Yeon Weon, Mee-Kyung Sang, Ju-Hee Lee, and Jaekyeong Song
    Inoculation of beneficial bacteria such as Bacillus velezensis strains has been widely used to stimulate plant growth and suppress the activity of ... + READ MORE
    Inoculation of beneficial bacteria such as Bacillus velezensis strains has been widely used to stimulate plant growth and suppress the activity of fungal pathogens in agricultural fields including ginseng (Panax ginseng). However, there is little information on changing microbial abundances and community structure. In this study, we investigated the inoculum populations and pathogenic abundances (Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium ultimum) by quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) and the shift of bacterial communities by Illumina Miseq based on 16s rRNA gene in the soil cultivated with ginseng under the two different inoculation methods (drenching and seed soaking). The population of inoculated microbe (Bacillus velezensis CC112) has maintained its relevant proportion for 4 to 9 days during the experiment in a ginseng-cultivating soil. The abundance of pathogenic fungi was effectively suppressed by the application of the Bacillus strain against Rhizoctonia solani (39%) and Pythium ultimum (7%), respectively as compared to the control (no application) without altering significant bacterial community structure in a ginseng soil. The inoculation of B. velezensis CC112 maintained its abundance almost until two weeks after the inoculation without significantly altering bacterial community structures in a ginseng soil. Conclusively, the inoculation of beneficial microbes is capable of potentially suppressing plant pathogenic fungi and improving crop productivity in the field cultivated with ginseng, replacing agrochemicals. - The population of selected microbe has maintained its relevant proportion for 4 to 9 days during ginseng cultivation. - Plant fungal pathogens were significantly suppressed by the application of B. velezensis CC112 against Rhizoctonia solani (39%) and Pythium ultimum (7%), respectively as compared to the control (no application) without altering bacterial community structure in a ginseng soil. - COLLAPSE
    May 2020
  • Article

    Soil Microbial Communities and Growth of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) in Paddy and Upland Soils
    Jin-Young Moon, Chang-Hee Son, Kyong-Hee Joung, Young-Gwang Kim, Young-Ho Chang, Dal-Yeon Choi, Hyeon-Ji Cho, Jae-Young Heo, and Young Han Lee
    The soil microbial communities and growth of sweet potato are often affected by soil type. This study evaluated the variations in microbial ... + READ MORE
    The soil microbial communities and growth of sweet potato are often affected by soil type. This study evaluated the variations in microbial communities of paddy and upland soils used for two sweet potato cultivars (Jinhongmi and Sinjami) cultivation by their fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). The pH, available P2O5, exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg of upland soil at the harvesting stage were significantly higher than those of paddy soil. The moisture content of paddy soil (28.5%) has increased by 6.7% as compared to upland soil (p < 0.001). The average microbial biomasses in paddy soil were approximately 2.8 times larger for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and 1.4 - 1.6 times larger for fungi, total bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, total FAMEs, Gram-negative bacteria, and actinomycetes. In addition, The total FAMEs, Gram-positive bacteria, fungi, total bacteria, and AMF in Jinhongmi cultivated soils were significantly larger than those in Sinjami cultivated soils. AMF communities in paddy soil showed significantly larger than that in upland soil (p < 0.001) indicating AMF are potentially responsible for the microbial community differentiation between paddy and upland field. The tuber yield of sweet potato was 28% higher, respectively, in the paddy soil and Sinjami treatment than in the upland soil and Jinhongmi treatment. It was confirmed that the paddy field was more effective on the productivity of sweet potato and soil microbial biomass. Effects of different soil types on the moisture content and yield of sweet potato. - COLLAPSE
    May 2020
  • Article

    Effect of Shading on Growth and Functional Ingredient Contents of Gynura procumbens Cultivated in Hydroponics System
    Kyu-Hoi Lee, Sung-Hee Lee, Eun-Sol Yeon, Who-Bong Chang, Ju-Hyoung Kim, Jae-Ho Park, Gwang-Hyun Han, Jin Hee Park, Sook-Jin Kim, and Tong-Min Sa
    Gynura procumbens (Family Asteraceae) is a medicinal plant commonly found in tropical Asian countries such as China, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Vietnam ... + READ MORE
    Gynura procumbens (Family Asteraceae) is a medicinal plant commonly found in tropical Asian countries such as China, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Vietnam. It is widely used as a traditional medicine in many different countries for the treatment of a variety of health ailments such as kidney discomfort, rheumatism, diabetes mellitus, constipation, and hypertension. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of shading on growth and functional ingredients of Gynura procumbens. Gynura procumbens was planted in a greenhouse on April 24 (2019), and shading treatments were carried out throughout the entire growth period at 0%, 35%, 55%, and 75% using a black net. The total plant height of Gynura procumbens was highest for the 75% shading treated ones. Additionally, the stem diameter and yield was higher for all the shading treated plants compared to the non-shaded control plants. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the 0% and 35% shading treated plants were significantly higher than the plants exposed to 55% and 75% shading treatment at 0.5% and 2.5% sample concentrations. The total flavonoids and vitamin C concentrations had also shown the same trend, whereas rutin content was highest for 0% shading treatment and the lowest was for 55% and 75% shading treatments. Hence, this study suggests that 35% shading treatment on Gynura procumbens can be considered as an advantageous condition for their growth and functional ingredients. Rutin contents of Gynura procumbens under different shading levels. Numbers with the same letter within a column are not significantly differed (Duncan’s test, p < 0.05). - COLLAPSE
    May 2020
  • Article

    Evaluation of Farming Practices for Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emission in Korean Agricultural Sector
    Jong-Sik Lee, Gun-Yeob Kim, Eun-Jung Choi, Sun-Il Lee, Chan-Wook Lee, Hyo-Suk Gwon, and Yoo-Kyung Lee
    This study was conducted to provide low carbon farming technique for greenhouse gases(GHGs) emission reduction in agriculture sector. It reviewed literatures ... + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to provide low carbon farming technique for greenhouse gases(GHGs) emission reduction in agriculture sector. It reviewed literatures on the characteristic of cultivation technique and its effects on carbon emission reduction. The effects of GHGs emission reduction were evaluated in agricultural land with several farming practices. In the rice cultivation technique, the irrigation water management showed good effect on GHGs emission reduction in paddy field. It also evaluated reduction efficiency of source of nitrogen supply and soil improvement. The intermittent irrigation showed 25.1% carbon reduction efficiency as compared to continuously flooded treatment. Slow release fertilizer and ammonium sulphate decreased carbon emission by 19.8% and 7.9% compared to urea, respectively. With soil amendments treatment, silicate fertilizer and zeolite reduced carbon emission 14.1% and 21.7% compared to rice straw treatment. In the upland crop cultivation technique, the efficiency of tillage management, green manure, livestock compost and nitrification inhibitor application were estimated. Substitution of 50% of nitrogen with hairy vetch showed 65.6% carbon reduction efficiency. It also showed 20.4% emission reduction with nitrification inhibitor treatment. However, GHGs emission were increased with livestock compost application. It provided basic data for reducing the GHGs emission in agriculture sector by accomplishing low carbon farming technique and policy project. Effect of farming practices on GHG emission reduction in paddy field. - COLLAPSE
    May 2020
  • Article

    Effect of Irrigation Frequency on Growth and Functional Ingredient Contents of Gynura procumbens Cultivated in Hydroponics System
    Kyu-Hoi Lee, Sung-Hee Lee, Eun-Sol Yeon, Who-Bong Chang, Ju-Hyoung Kim, Jae-Ho Park, Gwang-Hyun Han, Jin Hee Park, Sook-Jin Kim, and Tong-Min Sa
    Gynura procumbens (Family Asteraceae) is a medicinal plant commonly found in tropical Asian countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, China, and Vietnam ... + READ MORE
    Gynura procumbens (Family Asteraceae) is a medicinal plant commonly found in tropical Asian countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, China, and Vietnam. It is widely used as a traditional medicine in many different countries for the treatment of a variety of health ailments such as kidney discomfort, hypertension, constipation, diabetes mellitus, and rheumatism. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of irrigation on growth and functional ingredients of Gynura procumbens. Gynura procumbens were planted in a greenhouse on April 24 (2019), and irrigation was carried out throughout the entire growth period at 12, 24, 48, 72hour cycles using drip hydroponics system. The total height of Gynura procumbens became higher with shorter irrigation cycle, whereas a smaller height was recorded with the longer periods. The maximum yield was recorded for 12 - 24 h irrigation cycle, but it tended to decrease as the irrigation cycle became longer. The leaf marketability based on the irrigation cycle, leaf length, leaf width, leaf weight, and leaf thickness were best for the 24 h irrigation cycle treatment. The total polyphenols was higher for the 72 h irrigation cycle treatments compared to the others. Vitamin C concentrations were high at 48 and 72 h irrigation cycle treatment. Hence, the growth of Gynura procumbens based on irrigation cycle was maximum at 24-hour, and total polyphenol and vitamin C content was highest at 72-hour irrigation cycle treatment. Effect of irrigation frequency on antioxidant contents of Gynura procumbens. Numbers with the same letter within a column are not significantly differed (Duncan’s test, p < 0.05). - COLLAPSE
    May 2020
  • Article

    Pilot Scale Solid State Anaerobic Co-digestion of Dairy Manure and Milking Parlor Wastewater
    Seunghun Lee, Eunjong Kim, Myeongseong Lee, Jisoo Wi, and Heekwon Ahn
    A pilot scale solid-state anaerobic co-digestion study was conducted to elucidate the feasibility of anaerobic digestion as an effective treatment method for ... + READ MORE
    A pilot scale solid-state anaerobic co-digestion study was conducted to elucidate the feasibility of anaerobic digestion as an effective treatment method for dairy manure (DM) and milking parlor wastewater (MPW), and it focusing mainly on the stability of anaerobic digestion process and methane production potential. Dairy manure and milking parlor wastewater were co-digested (1/0.48, w/w) in 11m3 volume reactor for 63days at the mesophilic condition (36°C). In addition, pH, volatile fatty acids and ammonia were periodically analyzed to monitor anaerobic digestion inhibitions. The results showed that the co-digestion of DM and MPW was successfully performed without any inhibition caused by ammonia and volatile fatty acids accumulation. The potential methane production (P) from a modified Gompertz model was about 130.5 mL g-VS-1, and approximately 80% of the methane production was obtained during the 40 days digestion test and the lag phase was 14 days. The pilot scale SSAD (solid-state anaerobic digestion) system showed about 1.3-fold higher methane production than lab-scale system. The results of solid-state anaerobic co-digestion of bedded pack barn dairy manure and milking parlor wastewater using pilot-scale anaerobic digester can be used as a reference for the design of farm-scale anaerobic digester. The pilot scale SSAD system showed about 1.3-fold higher methane production than lab-scale system. The potential methane production (P) was about 130.5 mL g-VS-1, and approximately 80% of the methane production was obtained during the 40 days digestion test and the lag phase was 14 days. - COLLAPSE
    May 2020
  • Article

    Effects of Forest Fire on the Physicochemical Properties of Top Soils of Adjacent Agricultural Land
    Yongseon Zhang, Dong-Jin Kim, Hee-Rae Cho, Young-Ho Seo, Hyub-Sung Lee, and Soon-Sun Kim
    Combustion of agricultural topsoil leads to reduced organic sources, a transformation of soil structure, a formation of water repellent soil layer, and ... + READ MORE
    Combustion of agricultural topsoil leads to reduced organic sources, a transformation of soil structure, a formation of water repellent soil layer, and changes in balance and availability of nutrients. Therefore, in order to evaluate the change in soil environment of adjacent agricultural lands affected by forest fires, we investigated the physicochemical properties of the topsoil of agricultural lands in Goseong and Gangneung, Gangwon Province in 2019. The forest fire damaged agricultural land adjacent to forests do not have sufficient combustion sources like forest land. So there are no root burning, ash penetration, soil structure transformation, and water repellent soil layer, which can cause the soil to be thermally damaged. There was no statistically significant difference in the physical (bulk density, porosity, soil moisture, and soil three phase) and chemical (pH, EC, organic matter, available phosphate, and exchangeable cations) properties of the agricultural land damaged by wildfire and the control agricultural land. Based on this, there appears to be no combustion damage that affects the soil environment of farmland. The burn phenomenon of top soils including ground cover, ash color and depth, soil structure, roots, and soil water repellency applied by USDA criteria. - COLLAPSE
    May 2020
  • Article

    Influence of Soil Layer Management Via Soil Reversal on the Cd and Pb Bioavailability to Rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the Mining-Impacted Soil
    Seok Soon Jeong, Hyuck Soo Kim, Sang-Phil Lee, Seung-Min Oh, Kwon-Rae Kim, and Jae E. Yang
    Various soil remediation techniques are available to remove or stabilize the metal in contaminated soil, in order to retard the metal toxicity ... + READ MORE
    Various soil remediation techniques are available to remove or stabilize the metal in contaminated soil, in order to retard the metal toxicity or bioavailability. However, according to the inherent characteristics of those remedial techniques, several methods deteriorate the soil properties and produce secondary contaminants. We aim to the soil layer reversal method to retard the metal availability to rice and at the same time to leave intact the soil properties in paddy soil that are polluted with metals. The experimental paddy soil showed a relatively uniform profile in physicochemical properties up to 100 cm in depth. Surface soil (0 - 50 cm) was contaminated with Cd and Pb but their concentrations as the soil depth increased, which was lower than Korean pollution threshold levels (1.5 and 100 mg kg-1, respectively). The contaminated surface soil layers and the uncontaminated deeper soil layers were reversed with each other, and then rice (Oryza sativa L.) was cultivated in paddy fields. Concentrations of 0.1 M HCl extractable Cd and Pb in the reversed surface soil were 84 - 91% and 78 - 86% lower than those of the initial surface soils, respectively. Translocations of Cd and Pb to the rice in the reversed surface soil were relatively low (Cd 0.22-0.24 mg kg-1; Pb 1.1-1.3 mg kg-1), as compared to those of the control (Cd 0.95 mg kg-1; Pb 2.9 mg kg-1). The results demonstrate that the soil reversal technique can be an option to reduce the metal bioavailability in the paddy field, whereas the implication of the current soil remediation technology is not feasible from the practical or economic viewpoint. Heavy metal (Cd and Pb) concentrations (mg kg-1) in polished rice samples. C, control; RS, reversed soil; RSL, reversed soil with lime break layer; RSG, reversed soil with gravel break layer. Error bars are standard deviations. - COLLAPSE
    May 2020
  • Article

    Occurrence of Veterinary Antibiotics in the Agro-Environment
    Jin Wook Kim, Young Kyu Hong, and Sung Chul Kim
    Veterinary antibiotics (Vas) in agro-environment has been concerned because of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) production. The objective of this research was to ... + READ MORE
    Veterinary antibiotics (Vas) in agro-environment has been concerned because of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) production. The objective of this research was to monitor VAs in the agro-environment such as soil, sediment, and surface water near at the confined animal feeding operation (CAFOs). Total of 6 VAs including tetracycline (TC), chlortetracycline (CTC), oxytetracycline (OTC), sulfamethazine (SMT), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), and sulfathiazole (STZ) were monitored. Extraction of VAs was conducted with solid phase extraction (SPE) and quantified with high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). Result showed that only SMX was observed among 6 VAs and concentration range was following: soil (0.03-0.11 µg kg-1), sediment (0.04-0.07 µg kg-1), surface water (0.04-0.06 µg L-1). Correlation analysis showed that soil pH was negatively correlated with SMX concentration in soil (correlation coefficient: -0.66) indicating that less SMX was observed as soil pH was increased. The reason for negative correlation between soil pH and SMX concentration in soil was that SMX was negatively charged at higher soil pH and electric repulsion could be occurred between soil particles and SMX. However, more detailed research would be necessary to verify the occurrence, fate, and transport of VAs in agro-environment. Descriptive explanation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in the agro-environment. - COLLAPSE
    May 2020
  • Short Communication

    Assessment of Fertilizer Usage by Food Crops at the National Level
    Seong Heon Kim, Hyun Young Hwang, Myung Sook Kim, Seong Jin Park, Jaehong Shim, and Yun Hae Lee
    Korea is one of countries that have high application rates of inorganic fertilizers. Recently, environmental pollution has been announced due to overuse ... + READ MORE
    Korea is one of countries that have high application rates of inorganic fertilizers. Recently, environmental pollution has been announced due to overuse of fertilizer. To reduce the fertilizer usage, agricultural policies in terms of environmental sustainability has been introduced since the 1990s. This study aims to investigate total fertilization rates by nutrients and food crops in 9 provinces of Korea. In results, the average of total fertilizer inputs (N-P2O5-K2O) was 18.3-11.2-12.7 kg 10a-1. Total fertilizer usage of potato was 35.5 kg 10a-1 as N that was higher than other crops. The order of contribution to total fertilizer use was inorganic fertilizer > compost > organic fertilizer. As a result, main concern of excess and use of fertilizers were focused on inorganic fertilizer. However, because of the high nutrient content of compost, the application rate of compost should be monitored and controlled. Therefore, long-term monitoring and proper training is required to understand nutrient characteristics of fertilizer and to reserve environmental sustainability in agriculture. Distribution of nutrient in food crops with different fertilization. - COLLAPSE
    May 2020