• Article

    Analysis of Soil Nutrient Balance, Soil Enzymatic Activity and Growth Characteristics of Facility-grown Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) with Incorporation of Hairy Vetch>Analysis of Soil Nutrient Balance, Soil Enzymatic Activity and Growth Characteristics of Facility-grown Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) with Incorporation of Hairy Vetch
    Pyoung Ho Yi, Seung Gab Han, Gopal Selvakumar, Seong Eun Lee, Dae Ho Jung, and In-Bog Lee
    Long-term use of chemical fertilizers will impair the physical and biological properties of facility soil environment for crop cultivation. The effective way ... + READ MORE
    Long-term use of chemical fertilizers will impair the physical and biological properties of facility soil environment for crop cultivation. The effective way to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers and improve soil properties is known to utilize green manure crops. The objectives of this study were to investigate the growth characteristics and yields, to analyze the nutrient utilization efficiency, and to measure the effect of soil microbial activity through enzyme activity when incorporating hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) with facility-grown peppers (Capsicum annuum L.). Four different fertilizer treatments were applied: no fertilizer (CON), chemical fertilizer (CF), hairy vetch and 0.5N additional fertilizer (HV0.7N), and hairy vetch and N additional fertilizer (HVN). Soil and plant nutrient content, plant nutrient use efficiency, and soil enzyme activity were analyzed in each treatment. All fertilization treatments significantly increased total fresh weight and fruit dry weight of red pepper compared to the control (CON). However, total fresh weight, macronutrient uptake, and P and K use efficiency were significantly lower in the HV0.7N treatment than the CF and HVN treatments. The HV0.7N and HVN treatments significantly increased soil dehydrogenase activity during entire cultivation period. Whereas, urease and β-glucosidase activity were significantly increased only in the early stages of cultivation. These results suggest that the incorporation of hairy vetch residue as organic fertilizer in cultivation facility, can increase enzyme activity in the soil. Moreover, the yield of red pepper fruits was not small compared to that of CF treatment, even if only a lower amount of nitrogen was applied. Comparison of growth response of red pepper between chemical fertilizer and hairy vetch treatments, in which N input was equal. - COLLAPSE
    February 2020
  • Article

    Lettuce Growth and Nitrogen Loss in Soil Treated with Corn Starch Carbamate Produced Using Urea
    Do-Hun Kim, Yu-Jeong Kang, Jin-Ju Choi, and Seok-In Yun
    Urea is the most commonly used nitrogen fertilizer in agriculture due to its high N content and low transportation cost. A significant ... + READ MORE
    Urea is the most commonly used nitrogen fertilizer in agriculture due to its high N content and low transportation cost. A significant portion of urea-N applied in soil is often lost via ammonia volatilization, leaching, and denitrification. At high temperatures, urea is converted to starch carbamate by reacting with starch. Starch carbamate can be used as a slow-release fertilizer because of its low solubility and mineralization rate. A pot experiment of growing lettuce was conducted to investigate the effects of starch carbamate on crop growth and nitrogen loss in soil. Three treatments were urea, starch-urea mixture, and corn starch carbamate. In all treatments, soil pH after lettuce cultivation decreased compared to before, but was not different (P > 0.05) among treatments. The corn starch carbamate treatment had higher NH4+ and NO3- contents than the urea treatment, reflecting the lower mineralization rate of corn starch carbamate. The amount of nitrogen loss due to leaching was lowest in the starch carbamate treatment, but the difference between treatments was not significant (P > 0.05). The dry weight of lettuce in the corn starch carbamate treatment increased by 79% compared to the urea treatment, probably due to alleviation of ammonia toxicity in the corn starch carbamate. These results indicated that nitrogen was relatively slowly mineralized in the starch carbamate treatment compared with the urea treatment and so had lower chance of leaching and causing ammonia toxicity to plants. Thus, starch carbamate can be used as a slow-release fertilizer to reduce ammonia stress in plants and nitrogen loss by leaching. Nitrogen uptake of lettuce treated with urea, starch-urea mixture, and starch carbamate. - COLLAPSE
    February 2020
  • Article

    Revised Soil Survey of Incheon City

    Byung-Keun Hyun, Byung-Hwan Seo, Yeon-Kyu Sonn, Sang-Ho Jeon, Woo-Ri Goh, Soon-Gang Yun, Sug-Jae Jung, and Jung-Won Choi

    Hyun, Byung-Keun1*, Seo, Byung-Hwan1, Sonn, Yeon-Kyu1, Jeon, Sang-Ho1, Goh, Woo-Ri1, Yun, Soon-Gang1, Jung, Sug-Jae1 and Choi, Jung-Won1
    Agricultural area have decreased continuously because of urbanization, huge apartment complex, land consolidation, road construction, etc. Especially, rapidly urbanizing areas such as ... + READ MORE
    Agricultural area have decreased continuously because of urbanization, huge apartment complex, land consolidation, road construction, etc. Especially, rapidly urbanizing areas such as Incheon-city in South Korea has the severe land-use change. In this regard, Our study was aimed investigate land-use changes including soil properties and soil information for providing the basic soil information and soil management practices in the region. The arable land in Incheon-city had been reduced to 6,376 ha in 2018 since 1999. The ratio of the reduced arable land was about 25.8%. Our results showed that paddy fields located in fluvio-marine plains were changed into upland or green house. In particular, paddy fields have been changed to not only upland, orchard, greenhouse cultivation but also fallow land. The area of 446.9 ha and 199 soil code revised soil data were analyzed. However, the number of soil series (195) and soil type (96) did not change. The largest increased area was Jisan (fine loamy, Typic, Endoaqualfs)soil series 82.3 ha which were revised from the existing Jeonbug, Ogcheon and Yeongji soil series. The various types of change of paddy field in Incheon city - COLLAPSE
    February 2020
  • Article

    Relationship Between Soil Physical Properties and Erodibility Factor of Jeju Black Volcanic Ash Soils Under a Rainfall Simulator Condition
    Won-Pyo Park and Ho-Jun Kang
    This study was conducted to determine the validity by comparing the soil erodibility factor (K) values, which were calculated by rainfall simulator ... + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to determine the validity by comparing the soil erodibility factor (K) values, which were calculated by rainfall simulator conditions (Kobs) and in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (KUSLE) from eight sites of black volcanic ash soils (BVAS) in Jeju Island and developed a new soil erodibility factor equation based on the physical properties of BVAS. The KUSLE value showed negative values in BVAS, indicating other methods for soil erodibility estimation need to be developed. The Kobs value had a significant positive correlation with the runoff rate (p < 0.01) and positively correlated with fine sand (0.02 - 0.2 mm) and clay / (silt + very fine sand). A significant negative correlation was observed between the Kobs and silt (0.002 - 0.02 mm) (p < 0.05), saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat), and infiltration rate (p < 0.01), all of which indicate the effect of these physical properties on the soil erodibility factor. As a result of multiple regression analysis, K = - 0.1492 + 0.0036 runoff rate - 0.0908 Ksat + 0.0112 fine sand (0.02 - 0.2 mm) (R2 = 0.981, p < 0.01). Therefore, the developed equation may be used as the soil erodibility estimation for USLE to predict soil erosion in BVAS on Jeju Island. Multiple regression analysis for the soil erodibility factor value (K) calculation in black volcanic ash soils on Jeju Island. Model Variable† R2 Adjusted R2 Durbin- Watson Mean Square F Pr>F 1 X1 0.8390 0.8122 2.17 0.13285 31.3 0.0014 2 X1․X2 0.9499 0.9299 2.52 0.07521 47.4 0.0006 3 X1․X2․X3 0.9894 0.9815 1.23 0.05222 124.5 0.0002 4 X1․X2․X3․X4 0.9965 0.9919 2.07 0.03945 215.2 0.0005 5 X1․X2․X3․X4․X5 0.9987 0.9954 1.20 0.03163 305.1 0.0033 6 X1․X2․X3․X4․X5․X6 1.0000 0.9999 2.68 0.02639 8174.3 0.0085 †X1, Runoff rate; X2, Saturated hydraulic conductivity; X3, Fine sand (0.02 - 0.2 mm); X4, Silt (0.002 - 0.02 mm); X5, Infiltration rate, X6, Clay/(silt+very fine sand). - COLLAPSE
    February 2020
  • Article

    Factors of Soil Properties and Elements in Tissues Influencing on Extent of Arsenic Accumulation in Brown Rice
    Da-Young Kim, Kye-Hoon Kim, Danbi Lee, Mina Lee, and Kwon-Rae Kim
    Recently, As-contaminated soil management has started dealing with phytoavailable As content instead of total As content in soils. Phytoavailable As content is ... + READ MORE
    Recently, As-contaminated soil management has started dealing with phytoavailable As content instead of total As content in soils. Phytoavailable As content is known to consider food safety more than the management of the environment. This study aims to predict As content in brown rice using phytoavailable As concentration in soil and soil properties and to see the relationship between element contents in tissues and As in brown rice. As-contaminated soils were collected, and their total and phytoavailable As content and soil properties were analyzed. Mehlich3 extraction method was used for phytoavailable As analysis. After the analysis, correlations among total and phytoavailable As concentrations in soils, As content in rice and soil properties were analyzed. Then, a prediction model of As content in brown rice was developed through multiple stepwise regression. Also, correlation analysis between nutrients and As contents in rice was conducted to identify the factors affecting As accumulation in brown rice. The modelling equation for estimating As concentration in brown rice was [Log (As in brown rice) = 2.45 + 0.13 × Log (As_Mehlich3) – 0.99 × Log (CEC) + 0.50 × Log (avail.-P)] (r = 0.49, p < 0.001). Soil avail.P concentration and CEC were valid variables for As accumulation in brown rice. In addition, Cu, Zn, Mo and Na in shoot were revealed to influence governing translocation of As from shoot to grain. Regression models for estimating As concentration in brown rice using total and phytoavailable As content in paddy soils, combined with soil avail.-P and CEC values. Parameter r p value Log (As_R†) = 2.98 ‒ 0.08×Log (Total As_S†) 0.13 0.318 Log (As_R) = 2.15 ‒ 0.06×Log (Total As_S) + 0.42×Log (avail.-P) 0.31 0.041 Log (As_R) = 2.63 + 0.01×Log (Total As_S) + 0.59×Log (avail.-P) ‒ 1.00×Log (CEC) 0.44 0.004 Log (As_R) = 2.15 + 0.17×Log (As_M3§) 0.28 0.022 Log (As_R) = 2.89 + 0.18×Log (As_M3) ‒ 0.72×Log (CEC) 0.38 0.008 Log (As_R) = 2.45+ 0.13×Log (As_M3) ‒ 0.99×Log (CEC) + 0.50×Log (avail.-P) 0.49 0.001 †As concentration in brown rice †Total As concentration in soil §Mehlich3-extractable As concentration in soil - COLLAPSE
    February 2020
  • Article

    Effect of Wood-derived Biochar Application on the Soil Microbial Community in Upland Field
    Yun-Sook Yi, Dal-Yeon Choi, Hyeon-Ji Cho, Jae-Young Heo, and Young Han Lee
    This study evaluated the effects of biochar from the pyrolysis pine on the soil microbial communities by fatty acid methyl ester (FAME ... + READ MORE
    This study evaluated the effects of biochar from the pyrolysis pine on the soil microbial communities by fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in upland field. The nutrient management for lettuce cultivation at silt loam soil was treated with four rates of biochar 0 (CFB1), 60 (CFB2), 120 (CFB3), and 240 kg 10a-1 (CFB4) with chemical fertilizer (14.3 kg 10a-1 N, 15.7 kg 10a-1 P2O5, and 12.1 kg 10a-1 K2O), no fertilizer (NF), and pig manure compost 2 ton 10a-1 with chemical fertilizer (CFC). Compared to the NF, the soil microbial biomass (total FAMEs), Gram-negative bacteria biomass, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) biomass, and total glomalin concentration were significantly increased after biochar amendments treatment, while the microbial biomasses were not significant between CFB1 and biochar treatments. CFB3 and CFB4 had a significantly lower ratio of cy19:0 to 18:1ω7c when compared with that of CFC (P < 0.05), which indicates that a decrease in microbial stress was caused by organic matter soil inputs without competition from other microbes. Community of actinomycetes in CFC soil was significantly larger than those in biochar treatment soils (P < 0.05) indicating actinomycetes are potentially responsible for the microbial community differentiation between CFC and biochar treatments in upland field. Ratio of cy19:0 to 18:1w7c of different biochar treated soils for lettuce cultivation. NF, no fertilizer; CFC, pig manure compost 440 kg 10a-1+chemical fertilizer; CFB1, chemical fertilizer; CFB2, biochar 60 kg 10a-1+chemical fertilizer; CFB3, biochar 120 kg 10a-1+chemical fertilizer; CFB4, biochar 240 kg 10a-1+chemical fertilizer. - COLLAPSE
    February 2020
  • Article

    The Fate of 15N-labeled Organic Materials Applied to Chinese Cabbages Cropping System
    Cho-Rong Lee, Yura Oh, Bi-Na Song, Jung A Jung, Jeong-Lai Cho, Sang-Min Lee, and Nan-Hee An
    Nitrogen added to farmland is used to plants or remains in soil, or is lost to environment. We incorporated 15N-labeled materials (Chemical ... + READ MORE
    Nitrogen added to farmland is used to plants or remains in soil, or is lost to environment. We incorporated 15N-labeled materials (Chemical fertilizer (CF), green manure (GM), livestock compost (LC), GM+LC, and oil cake (OC) to soil and cultivated Chinese cabbages (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) and analyzed the 15N recovery of crop and soil to investigate the fate of nitrogen. The results follow. The 15Ncrop recovery of chemical fertilizer (CF) was the highest, and that of organic materials differed by type. The 15Nsoil recovery of CF was the lowest, and that of organic materials was 3 - 6 times higher than CF. The 15Nloss was not significantly difference between CF and organic materials (except GM+LC). As results, despite of the same amount of nitrogen input, there was the difference in plant uptake and soil residue between organic materials and CF. Nitrogen of CF is used to Chinese cabbages more than organic materials, however most of the remaining nitrogen is estimated to be lost to the environment. Therefore, CF might be hard to occur residual effect in the next cropping season. In organic materials, nitrogen is less used to Chinese cabbages than CF, but remains in soil more than CF. Therefore, organic materials might be useful for improving soil fertility and have a residual effect in the next cropping season. We suggest that these properties of organic materials should be taken into account in calculating the amount of applied fertilizer in organic farming where mainly organic materials are used. Moreover, it is necessary to investigate the cumulative and residual effects of continuous input of the same organic materials. Distribution of 15N derived from materials to Chinese cabbages-soil-environment system. Treatment 15N distribution (%) Crop† Soil† Unaccounted§ Green manure (GM) 27 28 45 Livestock compost (LC) 8 47 45 GM+LC 25 50 25 Oil cake (OC) 25 23 51 Chemical fertilizer (CF) 50 6 44 †is 15Ncrop recovery of Chinese cabbages. †is 15Nsoil recovery in soil. §is 15Nloss into environment (100-15Ntotal recovery). - COLLAPSE
    February 2020
  • Article

    Evaluation of Crop Suitability for Reclaimed Tideland Soils Using Soil and Water Salinity and Soil Texture
    Young-Jae Jeong, Sang-Sun Lim, Hyun-Jin Park, Bo-Seong Seo, Se-In Park, Jin-Hee Ryu, Kyo-Suk Lee, Doug-Young Chung, Han-Yong Kim, Seung-Heon Lee, Hye In Yang, and Woo-Jung Choi
    There are increasing social pressures on the agricultural use of salt-affected reclaimed tideland (RTL) for the cultivation of other crops except for ... + READ MORE
    There are increasing social pressures on the agricultural use of salt-affected reclaimed tideland (RTL) for the cultivation of other crops except for rice. Crop suitability for RTL has conventionally been evaluated using soil salinity alone without consideration of soil texture and water salinity. In this study, the suitability of 10 crops for 12 RTLs under national government’s management was evaluated using soil and water salinity as well as soil texture. The crops include barley (both cereal and forage) (hordeum vulgare), wheat (triticum eastivum), paddy rice (oryza sativa), maize (forage) (zea mays), beet (beta vulgaris), celery (apium graveolens), spinach (spinacia oleracea), broccoli (brassica oleracea var. italic), and tomato (solanum lycopersicum). The results showed that barley and wheat are most suitable winter crops for all RTLs and beet, celery, and maize are more suitable than others as summer crops. The suitability of rice, which is widely cultivated in all RTLs, was not as high as expected in some RTLs, suggesting that it may be possible to consider other crops as alternative summer crops to rice. By using not only soil salinity but also soil texture and water salinity as parameters for crop suitability evaluation, it was possible to recommend suitable crops for each RTL of which soil texture and soil and water salinity differ. Yield responses of 10 selected crops to soil (ECe) and water (ECw) salinity. - COLLAPSE
    February 2020
  • Article

    Selection of Urban Shade Tolerant Ground Cover Plant Through Photochemical Assessment
    Seung-Won Han and Sung-Yung Yoo
    In this study, we performed to selection of urban shade tolerant ground cover plant through growth and photochemical reaction analysis. Plants that ... + READ MORE
    In this study, we performed to selection of urban shade tolerant ground cover plant through growth and photochemical reaction analysis. Plants that are not properly planted according to their biological requirements under different growth conditions cause several problems such as poor growth and withering, which wastes an enormous amount of time and budget for maintenance. Multi-layer planting is designed to ensure vegetation resources that lack mobility have their native ecological characteristics, respond to different living environments and show different growth patterns as they are affected by factors such as sunlight on the ground and underground moisture. Against this backdrop, this study aimed to provide base information for planting designs through the evaluation of the growth and photochemical reaction of plants under different partial shading conditions. The results of this study are expected to be utilized in planning and designing planting to reduce factors that may cause flaws in landscape planting and minimize the burden of maintenance. Under different shading conditions (0%, 50% and 80% shading), distinct changes in the growth of plants were observed. Pachysandra terminalis ‘Variegata’, Physostegia virginiana, Carex maculata, Veronica linariifolium are recommended to be planted in 50% - 80%-shading spaces. We performed to evaluate and analyze the growth and light utilization efficiency of garden plants in the shade area through chlorophyll fluorescence reaction analysis. Under shading, the fluorescence parameter related with electron-transport in photosystem II, ET2O/RC was effectively enhanced whereas the electron transport flux until PSI acceptors per reaction center (RE1o/RC) reduced. In addition, some photochemical parameters such as RC/ABS, RE1O/RC, DIo/RC, DFTOTAL ABS were important for the determination of shade tolerance. On the basis of these results, the shade tolerant index deduced from growth and photochemical parameters were useful for an evaluation of shading stress in urban ground cover plants. Changes of plant height and length of stem node every two weeks of Pachysandra terminalis ‘Variegata’ by non shading (top left), 50% shading (top right), and 80% shading (bottom left) treatment relatively. Different letters in one measurement indicate statistically significant difference at p ≤ 0.05 by Duncan multiple range test. - COLLAPSE
    February 2020
  • Short Communication

    Soil Chemical Properties of Citrus Orchards in Jeju
    Ho-Jun Kang
    This study is conducted to be used as data for soil nutrient management and fertilizer application improvement by examining the chemical characteristics ... + READ MORE
    This study is conducted to be used as data for soil nutrient management and fertilizer application improvement by examining the chemical characteristics of citrus orchard soils in the Jeju region. The soil samples were collected from 50 sites of dark brown soils (DBS), 50 sites of very dark brown volcanic ash soils (VDBAS), and 50 sites of black volcanic ash soils (BVAS) in Jeju Island from February to March 2018. Soil chemical properties such as pH, organic matter, available phosphate (Av. P2O5), exchangeable potassium (Ex. K), exchangeable calcium (Ex. Ca), exchangeable magnesium (Ex. Mg), and lime requirement were analyzed. The average pH of DBS, VDBAS, and BVAS were 5.4, 5.0, and 5.3, respectively. Organic matter contents were 42 g kg-1 for DBS, 98 g kg-1 for VDBAS, and 154 g kg-1 for BVAS, which showed that the darker the soil color, the higher the organic matter contents. Av. P2O5 and Ex. K contents became lower as the soil color get darker, and the lime requirement became higher as the soil color get darker. When compared to the optimal range of ideal citrus orchard soils, the insufficient ratio of pH, Ex. Ca, and Mg were quite high, with more than 58% in all soils, thus requiring the use of calcium magnesium fertilizer. The excessive ratio of Av. P2O5 and Ex. K were high in DBS with 90% and 62%, respectively, and the insufficient ratio of Av. P2O5 and Ex. K in BVAS were high with 46% and 56%, respectively. As for the correlation between citrus orchard soil chemical components, the pH and Ex. cations (K, Ca, and Mg) showed a positive correlation, and the pH and lime requirement showed a negative correlation. Organic matter showed a negative correlation with Av. P2O5 and a positive correlation with lime requirement. In conclusion, the fertilizer management of the soil in Jeju needs to be managed differently depending on the soil color. Chemical properties of citrus cultivated soils in Jeju. Soil colors Statistics pH O.M. Avail. P2O5 Exch. Cation LR K Ca Mg 1:5 g kg-1 mg kg-1 cmolc kg-1 kg 10a-1 DBS† Average 5.4a§ 42c 638a 0.83a 5.1a 1.5a 1,106b Min-Max 4.5 - 7.1 25 - 68 203 - 1040 0.34 - 2.51 0.8 - 15.1 0.4 - 5.5 0 - 2,330 VDBAS Average 5.0b 98b 312b 0.67ab 4.9a 1.3a 2,218a Min-Max 4.2 - 6.8 62 - 138 27 - 915 0.14 - 1.77 0.5 - 19.3 0.1 - 4.7 0 - 4,909 BVAS Average 5.3ab 154a 208c 0.55b 6.1a 1.7a 2,457a Min-Max 4.4 - 7.0 108 - 201 25 - 494 0.17 - 1.75 0.58 - 28.0 0.1 - 5.9 0 - 6,148 Optimum range 5.5 - 6.5 21 - 50† 101 - 150 200 - 300 0.50 - 0.70 5.0 - 6.0 1.5 - 2.0 †DBS, Dark brown soils; VDBAS, Very dark brown volcanic ash soils; BVAS, Black volcanic ash soils. †21-50 : Dark brown soils, 101-150 : Volcanic ash soils §Medians by the same letter within a column are not significantly different at 0.05 probability level according to Tukey test using ranks. - COLLAPSE
    February 2020