• Short Communication

    Four-year Field Study on the Effect of Nutrient Management Practices on Soil Chemical Properties and Leaf Mineral Content in Newly Established Apple Orchard
    Seong Eun Lee, In Bog Lee, Pyoung Ho Yi, and Gopal Selvakumar
    This four-year field study aimed to demonstrate the effect of nutrient sources and recommended fertilizer application (RFA) based on soil testing result ... + READ MORE
    This four-year field study aimed to demonstrate the effect of nutrient sources and recommended fertilizer application (RFA) based on soil testing result on leaf mineral content and soil chemical properties in newly established ‘Hongro’/M.9 apple orchard. Chemical fertilizer (NPK), castor oil meal, hairy vetch + PK, and no fertilizer treatments were included. The results showed that there were no significant differences between nutrient sources on soil chemical properties, but leaf nitrogen and potassium content tended to be higher in oil meal and hairy vetch treatments. Meanwhile, RFA was revealed to have no effect on increasing soil chemical properties. Therefore, additional application of organic material should be needed in RFA system for appropriate soil nutrient management in newly established apple orchards under low fertility condition. Effect of nutrient sources and recommended fertilizer application on soil chemical properties in ‘Hongro’/M.9 apple orchard. - COLLAPSE
    August 2019
  • Short Communication

    Feasibility of Evaluation Methods for Reference Evapotranspiration in Plastic House
    Hee-Rae Cho, Kang-Ho Jung, and Seung-Oh Hur
    Irrigation demands (ID) of crops were, traditionally, determined with weather condition and crop characteristics estimated by reference evaopotranspiration (ET0) and crop coefficients ... + READ MORE
    Irrigation demands (ID) of crops were, traditionally, determined with weather condition and crop characteristics estimated by reference evaopotranspiration (ET0) and crop coefficients (Kc), respectively. In plastic house, the cultivation condition related to water consumption should be considered at establishing irrigation requirement. We assumed two scenarios to reflect cultivation condition on irrigation demands (ID) : i) ID = ET0 × Kcp and ii) ID = ETop × Kcp when ETop and Kcp indicate ET0 measured in plastic house (PH) and Kc for crops cultivated in pH, respectively. The former evaluates ID based on ET0 in open field (OF) and the latter does ID with ET0 in pH. The ET0 was estimated by water balance (WB) equation using lysimeter and FAO Penman-Monteith (FAO PM) equation during Jun. 16th to Oct. 31th. The FAO PM method was found to describe well ET0 in OF during Jun. to Sept., but to overestimate in OF & PH during Oct. because of low temperature for grass growth in Korea. The value of solar radiation and ET0 calculated by FAO PM were high correlation between OF and PH during Jun. to Sept., but different with period, Jun. 16-Jul. 11(1st) and Aug. 22-Sept. 30(2nd). The values of solar radiation were similar during 1st, but lower 35% in PH than OF during 2nd period, on average. The ET0 was lower 18% in PH than OF during 1st (3.15 mm day-1 in OF, 2.55 mm day-1 in PH) and lower 46% in PH than OF during 2nd period, on average (3.66 mm day-1 in OF, 2.00 mm day-1 in PH). It resulted from reduced solar radiation intercepted by plastic film. Based on the results, we concluded that FAO PM eq. was recommendable in calculating ET0 and calculation of ID based on i) ET0 was more acceptable than using ii) ETop. Furthermore, establishing Kcp pairing ET0 would be the next step to complement evaluating ID in pH. Correlation of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) between open field (OF) and plastic house (PH) during (a) June 16 to July 11 and (b) August 22 to September 30. †Correlation coefficient (r) was determined by Pearson correlation analysis (p<0.001). - COLLAPSE
    August 2019
  • Article

    Residue Decomposition and Nutrient Release of Two Weed Species Mown at a Persimmon Orchard in Mid-May
    Seong-Tae Choi, Gwang-Hwan Ahn, Eun-Gyeong Kim, Ji-Young Son, and Kwang-Pyo Hong
    The release of mineral nutrients from green manure residues of mowed weeds affects the nutrient supply from soil to fruit crops. Litterbags ... + READ MORE
    The release of mineral nutrients from green manure residues of mowed weeds affects the nutrient supply from soil to fruit crops. Litterbags filled with the residues of two weed species, Elymus tsukushiensis var. transiens (Gramineae) and Vicia hirsuta (Leguminosae), were periodically examined after being deposited on the soil surface in a persimmon orchard in mid-May 2011 and 2012. The residues within the litterbag decomposed faster during higher rainfall in 2011 than in 2012. There was no significant difference in the decomposition rate of the residues between the two weed species. In 2011 - 2012, DM remaining (% of initial DM) decreased to 69 - 92% during the first month, 26 - 43% after 2 months, and then it gradually decreased to 17 - 23% after 5 months of deposition. Releases of N, P, and K from the residue were also faster during the first two months in 2011 than in 2012, regardless of the weed species. N remaining (% of initial content) in the residues of the two weed species decreased to 48 - 82% during the first month, 26 - 44% after 2 months, and remained under 25% after 4 months. P from the residue released faster in V. hirsuta than E. tsukushiensis var. transiens during the first month, decreasing to 33 - 67% and 66 - 90% of the initial contents, respectively. It was notable that K remaining rapidly decreased to 66 - 91% during the first month and 4.6 - 14.7% after 2 months of deposition in both years. The results indicated that summer fertilization should be adjusted depending on patterns of nutrient release from weed residues under persimmon trees, considering new weed growth. Change in dry matter remaining (% of initial content) from residue of two weed species within a litterbag deposited on the soil surface under tree canopy of a persimmon orchard on May 13 in 2011 (A) and 2012 (B). - COLLAPSE
    August 2019
  • Article

    Effect of Oil-Cake and Amino Acid Fertilizer on Soil Bio-Chemical Properties and Pepper Yield
    Young Eun Yoon, Jong Uk Im, Jang Hwan Kim, Seong Hwa Jeon, Mi sun Jeong, and Yong Bok Lee
    A variety of organic materials has been currently used for the nutrient management in agricultural land. However, there is little study to ... + READ MORE
    A variety of organic materials has been currently used for the nutrient management in agricultural land. However, there is little study to understand the impact of organic materials for crop production with soil bio-chemical properties. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of organic materials using pepper crop (Capsicum annuum). Using oil-cake and amino acid fertilizer as organic materials, both soil characteristics such as bio-chemical properties and microbial community and pepper yield were tested for three years. The pepper was cultivated with four different treatments; Control (No fertilizer), NPK (inorganic fertilizer), OCF (Oil-cake), and (OCF+AAF) (Oil-cake with amino acid fertilizer). The result of soil properties showed that available phosphate content and microbial biomass were the highest in NPK and organic matter content was higher in OCF and OCF+AAF than NPK. Biochemical properties including activities of β-glucosidase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and arylsulfatase were not different among all treated samples. For pepper yield, OCF and OCF+AAF showed 10 - 40% less than NPK. Therefore, this study concludes that organic materials affect microbial biomass linked with organic matter contents and alter the soil microbial community. Three years yield data of red pepper on dry weight basis as influenced by different organic amendments; Control ‒ no fertilizer, OCF ‒ oil-cake fertilizer, OCF+AAF ‒ oil-cake with amino acid fertilizer, NPK ‒ mineral fertilizer. - COLLAPSE
    August 2019
  • Article

    Effects of Fish-Meal Application on the Growth of Chinese Cabbages (Brassica Campestris L.) and Soil Chemical Properties
    Jeomsoo Kim, Heonil Kang, Giyoon Kwon, Namsook Park, Donggeun Kim, and Insoo Choi
    This study was conducted to get the basic data for the eco-friendly cultivation of Chines cabbages that high nitrogen requirements by evaluate ... + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to get the basic data for the eco-friendly cultivation of Chines cabbages that high nitrogen requirements by evaluate the effect of the pollack fish-meal incorporation on growth properties of cabbage and soil chemistry. The study was conducted as pot (1/2,000a) test at the Miryang in Korea from May to August 2017. The treatment was divided into two groups; the amount of fish-meal treated were based by comparing the standard application ratio of nitrogen for Chinese cabbage with the nitrogen content of the fish-meal, and the chemical properties and the growth of the cabbage were compared by the treatments of 50%, 100%, 150%, 200% and 250%. The results obtained are following; the ammonia gas was produced from the after 2nd day of incorporated, and the amount of ammonia gas generated was geometrically correlated with the amount of fish processed. The soil pH level after study was lowered to about the pH 5.1 from 32.1 g/pot (1/2,000a). Due to the fish-meal increased the EC, content of Av. P2O5 acid and inorganic nitrogen, and the pH level did not decrease even when the inorganic nitrogen increased at NO3-‒N content of 5.4 mg/kg and NH4+‒N was higher than 3.3 mg/kg. The SPAD value at the time of cabbage harvest was positive correlation with the amount of fish-meal treated, and the biomass was similar to that of SPAD. The biomass of Chinese cabbage in fish-meal plots were higher than that of conventional treatments, and the weight of the headed cabbage was the highest in T4 (64.1 g/pot). The number of cabbage leaf was the highest in T3 (53.4 g/pot). Based on the above results, it is thought that if the C/N ratio adjusted plant organic resources, methods of mixing and technologies for minimizing pH drop are supplemented, it will be excellent eco-friendly organic resources instead of synthetic nitrogen. Relationship between pH and Soil NH4+‒N and NO3-‒N of the soils after the experiment due to different levels of fish-meal applied. - COLLAPSE
    August 2019
  • Article

    Influence of Foliar Fertilization with Monopotassium Phosphate on Growth and Yield of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.)
    Jin-Young Moon, Byeong-Kyu Min, Jung-Ho Shin, Yong-Cho Choi, Hyeon-Ji Cho, Young Han Lee, Sung Ran Min, and Jae-Young Heo
    Foliar fertilization is a effective application method used in these uplands as it provides good nutrition and increases crop yields. To determine ... + READ MORE
    Foliar fertilization is a effective application method used in these uplands as it provides good nutrition and increases crop yields. To determine the effect of foliar fertilization with monopotassium phosphate (MKP) on growth and yield of sweet potato, we analyzed plant growth, microbial communities by fatty acid methyl ester and chemical properties in soils from MKP 0 (control), 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% treatments. Soil pH significantly increased by increasing concentration of foliar fertilization with MKP. Compared with control, the soils of MKP 3% and 4% treatments had a significantly higher community of actinomycetes while the applications of KMP 4% and 5% was significantly decreased soil fungi communities. In addition, the MKP 4% had a significantly lower ratio of cy17:0 to 16:1w7c compared with other treatments, indicating that microbial stress decreased. The highest increase in productivity of sweet potato is reached with foliar fertilization of MKP 3% treatment and optimum concentration of MKP based on regression yield curve was 2.6%. These results indicate that foliar fertilization with MKP was more effect on the productivity of sweet potato. Regression yield curve of sweet potato according to monopotassium phosphate doses. - COLLAPSE
    August 2019
  • Article

    Changes in Chemical Properties of Greenhouse Soils Collected from Ganghwa
    Seong Heo
    The chemical properties of greenhouse soils in Ganghwa were investigated every year from 2014 to 2018 in order to manage soil fertility ... + READ MORE
    The chemical properties of greenhouse soils in Ganghwa were investigated every year from 2014 to 2018 in order to manage soil fertility and increase crop yield. In 2018, the average concentrations of chemical properties from greenhouse soils were analyzed: 6.4 for pH, 6.72 dS m-1 for EC (electrical conductivity), 23 g kg-1 for OM (amount of organic matter), 187 mg kg-1 for P2O5 (available phosphate), 1.89, 12.09, 4.84 cmolc kg-1 for exchangeable potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), respectively. There were no significant changes in the contents of pH and OM from 2014 to 2018. However, the concentration of EC was 3.7 times higher than that of the proper standard recommended by Rural Development Administration in 2018. Further, the excessive frequency ratio about exchangeable cations were 60.6% for K, 93.9% for Ca and 95.9% for Mg based on the recommendation and the contents of exchangeable cations had a tendency to increase according to the years. The frequency ratio of P2O5 which is insufficient in comparison with the standard was 83.8% and the concentration of P2O5 was 1.9 times lower than that of the recommendation in 2018. The P2O5 content had tended to decrease with years. The OM values of cucumber and tomato were higher than those of pepper and water melon, whereas the contents of P2O5 were also insufficient in all crops. Based on principal component analysis, EC was significantly correlated with exchangeable cations, K, Ca and Mg from greenhouse soils in Ganghwa. In order to promote soil fertility of greenhouse in Ganghwa, it is necessary to apply phosphate fertilizer and manage soil nutrients based on the soil tests and analyses. Pearson correlation coefficient matrix comparing paired chemical properties of greenhouse soils in Ganghwa. - COLLAPSE
    August 2019
  • Article

    Lysimeteric Evaluation for Transpiration and Carbon Accumulation of Kimchi Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis)
    Young-jin Seo, Hyo-hoon Nam, Won-cheol Jang, Jong-soo Kim, and Bu-yong Lee
    An accurate evaluation of transpiration is required for many applications in agricultural and environmental management because crop yields and plant growth are ... + READ MORE
    An accurate evaluation of transpiration is required for many applications in agricultural and environmental management because crop yields and plant growth are primarily water limited. This study was aimed to determine the transpiration of Kimchi cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) using weighing lysimeter, to evaluate the relationship between transpiration of Kimchi cabbage and meteorological factors such as solar radiation, air temperature, etc., Transpiration was increased as the leaf area increased with the growth stage. Also daily transpiration per unit leaf area was 0.46 ± 0.13 g cm-2 day-1 and there was no significant difference during cultivation period. The maximum transpiration was 132.9 g hour-1 and diurnal changes of transpiration was highly correlated with solar radiation although the maximum transpiration was observed at 17 - 23°C air temperature. The ratio of dry matter production to transpiration was 0.33% and carbon accumulation was 0.13%. This result shows that transpiration of Kimchi cabbage seem to be mainly governed by solar radiation energy in clear days and 96% of the water is discharged through transpiration for the heat dissipation. Therefore, weighing lysimeter can be used to measure transpiration accurately and may be useful in interpreting the plant growth. The transpiration of Kimchi cabbage follows the change of solar radiation. - COLLAPSE
    August 2019
  • Article

    Effect of Substrate to Inoculum Ratio and Inoculum Type on Solid State Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Manure
    Jinho Shin, Jongho Park, Seunghun Lee, Eunjong Kim, Myeongseong Lee, Jisoo Wi, and Heekwon Ahn
    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of substrate to inoculum ratio and inoculum type on solid state anaerobic digestion of ... + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of substrate to inoculum ratio and inoculum type on solid state anaerobic digestion of dairy manure collected from sawdust bedded pack barn. Dairy manure inoculated with different type of inoculum, dairy manure inoculum (DMI) and municipal sewage inoculum (MSI), was digested for 56 days at different substrate to inoculum ratios (SIR) of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 on volatile solids (VS) basis under mesophilic condition (37°C). Digesters inoculated with DMI showed higher biodegradable volatile solid removal (BVS removal: 52 - 82%) and methane production performance (P: 32 - 38 mL g-VS-1) than MSI inoculated test units. However, the maximum cumulative CH4 production was only 38.1 mL g-VS-1, in consequence of a large quantity of non-biodegradable materials included in dairy manure and nutrient losses during long-term storage of dairy manure. To improve the efficiency of methane production, additional studies need to be carried out using fresh dairy manure which has high methane production potential as anaerobic digestion substrate. Although the digester inoculated with DMI produced much more cumulative CH4 production in comparison with MSI, the maximum value was only 38.1 mL g-VS-1. It is a lot lower than fresh dairy manure reported by previous researches because we used the dairy manure decomposed in bedded pack barn and solid manure storage facility for 6 months. - COLLAPSE
    August 2019
  • Article

    Growth and Yield Response of Sweet Potato to Different Application Rates of Chemical Fertilizer under Polyethylene Mulch
    Jin-Young Moon, Byeong-Kyu Min, Jung-Ho Shin, Yong-Cho Choi, Hyeon-Ji Cho, Young Han Lee, Sung Ran Min, and Jae-Young Heo
    Growth and yield components of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) were investigated under 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% application rates of ... + READ MORE
    Growth and yield components of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) were investigated under 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% application rates of soil test based fertilizer recommendation with 5.5 kg 10a-1 N, 10.1 kg 10a-1 P2O5, and 19.8 kg 10a-1 K2O under polyethylene mulch. Soil chemical properties showed no significantly increased by increasing application rates of fertilizer recommendation. The 75% and 100% treatments increased total fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), bacterial FAME, Gram-negative and –positive bacterial FAME, and fungal FAME. The soil of 75% treatment had a significantly lower community of Gram-positive bacteria compared with 0%, 25%, and 50% treatments. The marketable root number was significantly higher in fertilizer 25% and 75% treatments, whereas marketable root weight was significantly higher in fertilizer 50% treatment. The highest increase in productivity of sweet potato is reached with 75% fertilization (3,305 kg 10a-1) of fertilizer recommendation and optimum fertilizer rates based on regression yield curve was 80% fertilization of fertilizer recommendation. These results indicate that new soil test based fertilizer recommendation was more effect on the productivity of sweet potato as well as soil nutrient conservation under polyethylene mulch system. Regression yield curve of sweet potato different according to application rates of fertilizer recommendation. - COLLAPSE
    August 2019
  • Article

    Effectiveness of Pelleting for Inoculating Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria on Small Seeds
    Ui-Gum Kang, Jum-Soon Kang, Si-Lim Choi, Sang-Seok Lee, Jong-Su Kim, and Seok-Hee Park
    The effectiveness of pelleting for inoculating small seeds with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) was studied. Seeds of sesame cv. Yangbaeckkae and perilla ... + READ MORE
    The effectiveness of pelleting for inoculating small seeds with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) was studied. Seeds of sesame cv. Yangbaeckkae and perilla cv. Namcheon were inoculated with Bacillus sp. KR083 and Pseudomonas sp. RRj228 with pelleting material, ‘DPA’ (contained 70% diatomite, 14% perlite, 5% appetite, 5% cow dung, 3% peat, and 3% pea) and stored at refrigerator temperature of 4°C or room temperature of 18 - 20°C for 2 to 7 weeks. While 4°C modestly improved strain survival and growth, crop by strain interaction was substantial. Strain KR083 numbers grew 10 to 13 fold on sesame in 2 to 7 weeks but declined by as much as 78% on perilla across both temperatures. In contrast, strain RRj228 numbers grew 1.7 to 11 fold on perilla but only maintained its numbers on sesame across temperatures and storage times. Strains impacted seed viability differently; while KR083 had no effect, RRj228 decreased germination rate of both sesame and perilla by as much as 20% after 2 weeks of storage of pelleted seeds at 18 - 20°C. Strain KR083 significantly improved root elongation of both crops, but only of sesame when co-inoculated with RRj228. On the other hand, KR083 had lower colonization ability than RRj228 on roots, 19 and 83 % lower on sesame and perilla, respectively. Mixed inoculum, however, significantly improved colonization of both strains on both crops. In field trials, sesame co-inoculated with KR083 and RRj228 yielded 18% higher than non-inoculated control while reducing phytophthora blight infection by 10 and 20% in silty loam and sandy loam soils, respectively. Likewise, Perilla yielded 29% more leaf with mixed inoculation than the non-inoculated, diatomite-pelleted control in the same silty loam soil. Results indicate DPA pelleting as an effective method for small seeded crops when compatible PGPR strains are used as inocula. Images of microscopic transverse section (50 fold magnification) of a sesame seed pelleted with ‘DPA’ material together with a mixture of PGPR strain Bacillus sp. KR083 and Pseudomonas sp. RRj228 (Left), a sesame seedling from the seed pellet (Center) and its growing status in ‘growth pouch’ (Right). - COLLAPSE
    August 2019
  • Article

    Verification of Reference Evapotranspiration Estimated by Weighable Lysimeters and Its Applicability
    Dong-Jin Kim, Kyung-Hwa Han, Yong-Seon Zhang, Hee-Rae Cho, Seon-Ah Hwang, and Jung-Hun Ok
    The reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is an essential indicator in explaining the water movement in the environment. In this study, we carried out ... + READ MORE
    The reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is an essential indicator in explaining the water movement in the environment. In this study, we carried out to investigate the ET0, which were LYET (reference evapotranspiration calculated by the weighable lysimeter), PMET (reference evapotranspiration calculated by the FAO Penman- Monteith equation), and HSET (reference evapotranspiration calculated by the Hargreaves equation), respectively, and to estimate the relationship among the LYET, PMET, and HSET by regression analysis. Turfgrass was selected as the reference crop for calculating the ET0 by the lysimeters. The experiment period was from 1st June to 31st December in 2015. The ET0 in the lysimeter study area (National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Wanju; WJ) was compared with that in the nearby Jeonju (JJ) location because of similar weather conditions. The relationship between PMET-WJ and PMET-JJ has the slope of 1.138, the coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.972, and the relationship between HSET-WJ and HSET-JJ has a slope of 0.934 (R2=0.984); thus the fitness was high in both cases. The relationship between LYET and PMET in both soils (fine loamy, FL; coarse loamy, CL) showed a relatively high R2 as higher than 0.9, whereas the relationship between LYET and HSET showed relatively low fitness (0.676 - 0.736 of R2). According to the month, the fitness of PMET:LYET was higher than that of HSET:LYET, and in November and December, the R2 of PMET:LYET was lowered to 0.7 or less as turfgrass entered into a dormant stage. The LYET, PMET, and HSET were found to have significantly high positive correlations with the minimum temperature, maximum temperature, mean temperature, and solar radiation (p < 0.01) and a significantly high negative correlation with mean humidity (p < 0.01). The estimated ET0 by the lysimeter experiment was evaluated to be highly conformable with the ET0 calculated by the FAO PM equations. Follow-up studies such as long-term monitoring are necessary to cope with the changing climate every year. The linear equation and coefficient of determination (R2) between the LYET and PMET/HSET using the regression equations. X-axis PMET-WJ HSET-WJ PMET-JJ HSET-JJ Y-axis Linear equation (R2) Linear equation (R2) Linear equation (R2) Linear equation (R2) LYET-FL y=1.066x (0.927) y=0.748x (0.736) y=0.932x (0.919) y=0.797x (0.718) LYET-CL y=1.003x (0.905) y=0.703x (0.709) y=0.877x (0.897) y=0.747x (0.676) †LYET, reference evapotranspiration calculated by the weighable lysimeter; PMET, reference evapotranspiration calculated by the FAO Penman-Monteith equation (Allen et al., 1998); HSET, reference evapotranspiration calculated by the Hargreaves equation (Hargreaves and Samani, 1985). ‡WJ, lysimeter station located at the National Institute of Agricultural Sciences in Wanju; JJ, Jeonju. §FL and CL are indicated fine loamy and coarse loamy in soil textural family, respectively. ∫Missing data in 27th and 28th November, 2015 at lysimeter station (Wanju). - COLLAPSE
    August 2019
  • Article

    Exploration of Heavy Metal(loid)s Immobilizing Agents Available for Agricultural Lands and Their Combination Effects
    Hyunuk Kim, Mina Lee, Hyuck Soo Kim, and Kwon-Rae Kim
    Heavy metal(loid)s contamination in Korean agricultural lands is mostly caused by tailing wastes, debris, and leachate from abandoned mines. For ... + READ MORE
    Heavy metal(loid)s contamination in Korean agricultural lands is mostly caused by tailing wastes, debris, and leachate from abandoned mines. For safe agricultural production, immobilizing agents have been actively studied to reduce phytoavailability of heavy metal(loid)s. However, more various immobilizing materials need to be explored to achieve a practical application of this technique. This study aims to examine and compare the effects of known and unknown immobilizing agents on decrease plant-available heavy metal(loid)s. Lime, gypsum, guano, and bone meal were applied in metal contaminated soils in isolation or in combination. After the treatment, changes in soil pH and dissolved organic carbon were analyzed. Lettuce was grown for 7 weeks in each soil, and heavy metal(loid)s concentration in lettuce was determined. The mixed immobilizing agents reduced phytoavailability of heavy metal(loid)s more effectively than the isolate treatments. A mixture of lime, gypsum, and guano was the most effective combination, followed by a mixture of lime, gypsum, and bone meal. Future study on a practical application of the immobilizing agents is required to increase both safety and productivity of agricultural crops. Cumulated heavy metal(loid) immobilizing rates of gypsum, lime, guano, and bone meal, treated either alone or in selected combinations - COLLAPSE
    August 2019